Australian Biography - Elizabeth Durack

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Fade up on opening sequence for Australian Biography. Title Australian Biography.

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Elizabeth Durack.

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Elizabeth Durack
Born 1915
Artist

Elizabeth sync: I only know that I have been - I am privy to areas of the old life and ways of the old people of Australia. And in that way, of course, I feel both enormously privileged and in one side of the mind you can feel deeply distressed for them. And then you've just got to feel the flow of history through life, and through this continent.

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B&W photo of Elizabeth as a young girl. Pull back to reveal Elizabeth standing in a line of children. Women stand and look on in b/g

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Elizabeth v/o: I can remember that being younger than my brother, Reg, and Mary, they were scampering around, and they went up a tree in the garden. And ...

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Elizabeth wearing striped shirt and tan waist coat.

Elizabeth sync: ...I somehow got myself up into a branch of the tree. Then they hopped down, and went somewhere else. And when I looked ahead of me, I saw a great big frog. And it was blinking its eyes at me like that. And I was absolutely terrified, but it was first moment of intense seeing. Because I can remember when I eventually howled my way down from the fork of the tree, it was drawing the frog. And I would have been about two, I suppose, at the time. So I can remember that I started - the feeling that I had between me and the frog. And then sort of a feeling, well perhaps it's frightened of me, too, you know. It was a sort of a empathetic feeling between us.

Robin o/s: And that strong...

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Photo of Elizabeth as a young girl

Robin v/o: ...seeing that you experienced, just as it were, ran down your arm, and made you want to draw.

Elizabeth v/o: It did, yes.

Robin v/o: Does that still happen?

Elizabeth v/o: Oh yes, it does. The eye and the hand often move quite automatically.

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Elizabeth sitting in room with paintings in b/g and painting at her side

Robin o/s: What other things were you drawing as a child?

Elizabeth sync: Well, of course, at school it was the conventional banana and orange on a plate in pastels. And things like that.

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Photo of two young girls wearing white dresses

Elizabeth v/o: And also, my sister, Mary, and I brought out our ...

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Looking down at pages of book showing sketch of pink rose and writing. Move right over details of book pages showing writing and various sketches of Australian animals

Elizabeth v/o: ...first joint book, and we called it 'Kookaburra and Kangaroo.' I was kookaburra. It was my first nom de plume. And within that, I had a lot of drawings and little sketches and essays.

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Archival footage Aboriginal horseman cracking whip over his head

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FX: Whip

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Archival footage of Aboriginal stockman riding a horse. Herd of cattle in b/g

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FX: Muted whistle
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Archival footage herd of cattle moving over flat grass country. Aboriginal stockmen drive cattle on horseback

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Robin v/o: The family owned huge properties right across the Kimberley region.

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Archival footage showing large house built at side of hill

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Robin v/o: When you left school, you went north with Mary to run one of them.

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Elizabeth wearing striped shirt and tan waist coat

Robin o/s: What was your relationship with the Aboriginal community there?

Elizabeth sync: Well, that was the time that we were able to get the firmest...

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Photo of Aboriginal stockmen on horseback in front of house. Move over photo to see two other Aboriginal stockmen on horseback at other side of house

Elizabeth v/o: ...bridge into it, because we were literally, for months on our complete own. Just two girls, with Aboriginals there. And then, in their ever ...

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Photo of Elizabeth as a young woman holding an umbrella. Zoom out to see Aboriginal family and Mary Durack standing by Elizabeth's side

Elizabeth v/o: ...accommodating way, it was they that drew us into their families, you see. So we became the sisters to the women, and their children...

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Photo of Elizabeth as a young woman standing with tree branch in front of her. Two young aboriginal boys sit at either side of her

Elizabeth v/o: ...were our children. And there was very much of an interfamily ...

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Photo of young Aboriginal boy. House in b/g

Elizabeth v/o: relationship. And it's still there. I saw my classificatory...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ... son the other day. He's the - he was the lead witness for the Miriwoong Kadjerong land claim, that's over that direct area, proceeding right now in courts held under a coolabah tree.

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Photo of Elizabeth sitting cross-legged on the ground and looking up at young Aboriginal boy standing at her side

Robin v/o: And how did he come to be your son?

Elizabeth v/o: Because he was a little boy, the model...

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B&W sketch of young Aboriginal boy wearing boots and wide brimmed hat

Elizabeth v/o: ...of many of the early books. This is Geoffrey Chunuma. And...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...he always tells everyone that I grew him up, that I was his mum. And when we meet...

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Colour photo of Elizabeth and Aboriginal man standing side by side with their arms around each other

Elizabeth v/o: ...as we did only the other day, he just puts his arms out and says Mum, you know.

Robin v/o: You left Ivanhoe...

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Photo of Elizabeth as a young woman. Pan left to CU dark haired man

Robin v/o: ...to go with Mary to London. And it wasn't long after you returned from that trip that you married a Sydney journalist. What effect did that have on your life?

Elizabeth v/o: It was...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...a wonderful eye-opener to expand contracted social knowledge that I had, being in that world. I also came to Sydney at a time, must have been the last of bohemian Sydney, you see. And he, Frank Clancy...

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Photo of Frank Clancy. Zoom out to CU photo of Frank Clancy and Elizabeth with two young children standing in front of them

Elizabeth v/o: ... was in the midst of it, you know, midst of it.

Robin v/o: And how long did it the marriage last?

Elizabeth v/o: About five years.

Robin v/o: And then you took your two children...

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Photo of Elizabeth sitting on lawn with two young children at either side of her

Robin v/o: ...and went...

Elizabeth v/o: Then I came west, I came west. West and north.

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Elizabeth wearing striped shirt and tan vest. Files and paintings in b/g

Elizabeth sync: That's when I had my studio on the banks of the river. That's when I did big paintings, like the one...

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Detail of painting showing group of Aboriginals swimming in river

Elizabeth v/o: ... behind me there. Very big paintings. They were all done about 1947. And that was ...

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Elizabeth wearing striped shirt and tan vest. Files and paintings in b/g

Elizabeth sync: ...the time when I came in to very close relationship with the older Aboriginal men, that had known me a decade earlier well, but hadn't been as close. But they were then old men, old Jubul and old Roger, they were living in the bush camp, and I had my studio on the bank of the Ord. And a lot of links went on there, very serious links.

Robin o/s: When you say very serious links, what do you mean?

Elizabeth sync: Well, they did talk of their old life, and they did show me a lot of the old renewal practices and river magic, and all sorts of areas that I just was somehow let...

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Detail of painting showing outline of Aboriginal figures in landscape. Move down to see figure of Aboriginal woman and child with dog at side of river

Elizabeth v/o: ...into. And people have said, why did they speak to you as a woman. And I don't know quite how to answer that. But they knew that ...

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Detail of painting showing hand in water. Move up to see figure of young Aboriginal child looking down

Elizabeth v/o: ...I felt very compassionate for them, because the old life was completely over, and they were at the end of their tether.

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Elizabeth. Files and paintings in b/g

Elizabeth sync: But that was a very, very important and crucial time for my relationship with the Aboriginals.

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Looking down at details of Aboriginal rock paintings.

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Rugged landscape seen through darkened mouth of rock overhang.

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Robin v/o: Some of the men took you on special walks too, didn't they, including...

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Details of Aboriginal design carved into rock face

Robin v/o: ...a major one that lasted three weeks. What was that like?

Elizabeth v/o: I was staying at - see I ...

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Elizabeth.

Elizabeth sync: ...moved around a lot, too. I was staying Moolaboola at the time, when it was an Aboriginal station. And I knew that there was some, there was a link going on between the station, the old men at the station and they were going to meet up with some desert men. And they were going down the road towards Lake Mackay. And I asked if I could go with them. And they let me go with them.

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B&W landscape of dry grass and trees. Outline of mountain in b/g

Elizabeth v/o: And we just walked off into the bush.

Robin v/o: Was there anything you weren't allowed to see while you were on this journey?

FX: Bird call

Elizabeth v/o: No, there wasn't any much.

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: I - now, for instance, there was one afternoon where obviously they were going to do some special chanting, or exposing special boards (?). Well, old Jenny I think it was - nice old girl - she said "Come on, missus, me and you two fella, we go look our pretty flower now." And what they mean - well look, the men are having a singsong there, we'll go off and - it wasn't to say you're not to watch this or anything. It was all done very, very gracefully. And you'd just comply with whatever. If she said that, I wouldn't, for a thousand pounds have said "No, I want to listen to them." Not for a minute, you know. I knew that there was etiquette in the bush, it was etiquette all the time.

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Pencil sketch of rugged rock landscape. Tilt up to see darkened rock overhand and landscape beyond

Robin v/o: When you got to the end of this three week trek, it was to meet men from the desert.

Elizabeth v/o: Yes, there were still a few old men that they were exchanging songs with.

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: Or boards or something. Or it might have been the remnant of an old trade route, or something like that, you see. It was a remnant of something.

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Sketch showing figure of Aboriginal woman sitting on ground. Move to see other figures sitting under shelter with dogs

Elizabeth v/o: They half were not going to do it at Moolaboola. They thought it was - they wouldn't go, perhaps they won't - perhaps the old men won't meet them at...

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Sketch showing Aboriginal man sitting under shelter with dogs sleeping around him

Elizabeth v/o: ... whatever point it was. But they did, and they picked it up pretty quickly as we went along.

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: There were signs of the smoke. And once they saw the smoke, they knew that the men were waiting for them. And that is the occasion - that particular occasion - is when I saw the nearest thing to - and this was 1948 - to what would be traditionally...

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Detailed sketch of Aboriginal man with long hair and white beard

Elizabeth v/o: ...living Aboriginals.

Robin v/o: This witnessing of something that was passing, something that was disappearing, did you relate...

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Elizabeth

Robin o/s: ...to that? Did you feel...

Elizabeth sync: I was learning. It was learning, you see. This is back in the forties. And it's been coming - you can only learn slowly. It comes to you slowly. The - I'd seen it visually, the incarnateness of the - when I was doing literal paintings. I remember saying once that I don't use...

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Painting of naked Aboriginal woman

Elizabeth v/o: ...any other colour to paint the skins of the Aboriginal than what's on my brush from painting the landscape. And it was always that drawing them into - that was sort of a...

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Elizabeth. Move back to MWS Elizabeth in studio

Elizabeth sync: ...visual thing. And then it became more understanding the theory behind it, you see. The continuum of the Narrangarri, which, it's a hard concept to get. Because as you might be walking along, the head, the old goanna man would say "And then he go down there, you see that. He go down there. And he coming out again. You see head there? He coming out again." And then he said "And then I go down and I'm going to have a big sleep now." And what - he was interchangeable with the creature that had shaped the land. Because he too, he was a living goanna man, you see, part of that landscape. And he still incarnate you see. And that - it's so ancient that - it must have been so fragile that it was too easily...

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Photo of Elizabeth as a young woman. Other woman in b/g. Move out to see Elizabeth and family on verandah and line of Aboriginal woman standing in front of family group

Elizabeth v/o: ...destroyed, you see.

Robin v/o: What was it like for you being to this Aboriginal experience and at the same time being a member of the Durack family, who had...

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Photo of Elizabeth as a young woman standing next to man wearing white shirt and hat. Horses in b/g

Robin v/o: ...done the fencing...

Elizabeth v/o: Yes, well of course, my brother's a bit interesting on that. And of course, we've often discussed it. Because he...

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Elizabeth. Files and paintings in b/g. Move into CU Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...follows all the political trends and everything. As for reconciliation he said, but they were reconciled. And then we might argue, and I'll say but was it reconciliation, or was it resignation, Reg. He said they were reconciled to the whole thing when they came into the stations to work, you see. But it's a bit of an open question, and certainly a very vexed one at the present time.

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Photo of Mr. Durack sitting on horse

Robin v/o: Your father sold all the Durack properties just before his own death in the fifties. Did this set you up financially? Were you able ...

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Elizabeth

Robin o/s: ...to live off your inheritance?

Elizabeth sync: No, I hadn't inherited any money. The - our father died very soon after the ...

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Photo of Elizabeth's father, Mr. Durack

Elizabeth v/o: ...disposal of the properties, and the sale was heavily taxed, both in Western Australia and in the Northern Territory.

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: So there wasn't any inheritance there. So it was always...

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Photo of Elizabeth painting portrait of young Aboriginal man. Aboriginal man sits in b/g

Elizabeth v/o: ... a matter of healthy hard work and planning exhibitions, and moving from ...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...one activity to another. I suppose it was the stimulus in a way, the very fact that I had to work...

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Detail of painting. Move back and pan right to reveal paintings on book cover with title of book Australian Legendary Tales, shown.

Elizabeth v/o: ...and had to sell.

Robin v/o: As a woman, and as someone who'd been well known as an illustrator, how were you ...

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Elizabeth

Robin o/s: ...accepted in art circles?

Elizabeth sync: Well, it'd been a big battle. Still is.

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Photo of Elizabeth and other woman posed in front of painting

Elizabeth v/o: You know, it hasn't embittered me or anything. But one of the worst...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...experiences was when I showed the big Broome ...

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Painting of Aboriginal woman and child against black backdrop

Elizabeth v/o: ...collection at then...

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Detail of painting showing two Aboriginal children following the figure of two white robed nuns

Elizabeth v/o: ...David Jones Gallery in Sydney.

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Looking down at program note from gallery leaflet which reads, "Exhibition of Paintings: By Elizabeth Durack. David Jones' Art Gallery. Jan. 31st to Feb. 10th 1947."

Elizabeth v/o: And the next day in the Sydney...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth v/o: ...Morning Herald, there was a damning, a damning review, in which he said "It's pretty clear that this artist is starting to walk before she can crawl. And a lot of these pictures look like as though she's copied cheap reproductions of Matisse."

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Colourized photo of Elizabeth. Move back to show cover of catalogue with the words "Elizabeth Durack" printed on cover.

Elizabeth v/o: I still didn't take it very seriously. But the fact of the matter was, the exhibition died on the walls. A few drawings sold.

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: But I hardly could pay my way back to Western Australia, you see. It was a damning criticism by a man artist. But it came as just sort of, just woven now into the rich tapestry of my failed career.

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Drawing of young Aboriginal girl holding a white goat

Robin v/o: But you did, nevertheless, manage to support yourself with your art, and at the same time raise a family. Where did the energy ...

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Elizabeth

Robin o/s: ...come from?

Elizabeth sync: Just good luck, I suppose. Good luck and good health, a great advantage. Yeah. Also, touching on another aspect of my life, which I won't go into deeply, I - and it's almost a cliché - but I had a desperately unhappy love affair, early, in the north. And I think it sort of...

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Photo of Elizabeth as a young woman sitting on a fence next to dark haired young man

Elizabeth v/o: ...shattered me to a large extent, so that everything else was irrelevant to a large extent, you know. But you know, that was what...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ... made me perhaps dislike London and being abroad so much, was that I really didn't want to go away. But I was committed to it by that time, I was committed to it. I can remember the boat pulling out from the Wyndham jetty, and looking at my tears dropping down into the muddy waters of the gulf. But I thought I'd come back. I thought I'd come back, and that, you know, that everything would work out. But I never saw him again. He was killed.

Robin o/s: How?

Elizabeth sync: It was a motor car accident. He was a wild boy, a very ...

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Photo of dark haired young man. Move left to see CU Elizabeth smiling

Elizabeth v/o: ...wild boy. But wonderful charm, and wonderful.

Robin v/o: How did it affect the way you looked at things?

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: Perhaps the whole of my life is the answer to that. The whole of my life since then is the answer to that. Including marriage and lovers and friends.

Robin o/s: And what do you think you did differently because of that tragic beginning?

Elizabeth sync: I don't think I could ever mate with anyone, that was my trouble. Perhaps the failure of the marriage was my inability to mate, more than, much more than Frank's. Do you know what I mean? I could never give completely ever again, and never would. And never have.

Robin o/s: Do you think that ...

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Painting showing people and things being blown away in windstorm

Robin v/o: ...this influenced some of your later work, like the series about a disintegrating world?

Elizabeth v/o: I see what you're getting at. Was I ...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...describing my own - was it autobiographical, a lot of the work? In a sense it is. In a sense there is that feeling of loss, always loss, loss. And to that, that was also something of the bonding with the Aboriginal people. Loss. A shared loss, you know. However you rationalise loss, loss is loss, you know.

Robin o/s: And you identified and empathised with the loss that they were feeling about their culture going?

Elizabeth sync: I think so, I think I did, yes. I think I did.

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Detail of painting showing man on horse riding between large rock formations. Move up to see narrow band of sky and Aboriginal paintings on rock surface

Elizabeth v/o: And I could feel the fragility of the environment that I'd been dealing with. And somewhere through this, I was back, as ever, at Warburton Range I think I was. And I think as ...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...the plane took off, I was looking at an old Aboriginal woman bending one of the little desert trees over, which is what they often do and then they throw a bit of canvas or something against that, you know. It's a sort of ancient way of making an Aboriginal house.

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B&W sketch of figure being blown by windstorm. Move right to see canvas shelter blowing in wind and old Aboriginal man standing windy landscape. Shelter with dog seen a right of frame

Elizabeth v/o: And as she was doing it, a whirlwind came and blew it away. And it was then that I thought of that line. I don't know whether it's a quote or not, but the line came into my head, 'the rim, the rim of our brittle and disintegrating world.'

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: Everything started levitating. And that came into the paintings.

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Detail of painting showing books, clothing, and various objects flying through the air in windstorm.

Elizabeth v/o: And that went through to all the work of the later seventies and into the eighties, when it went even further.

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Looking down at two panel sketch seen against black background

Elizabeth v/o: Into what I was calling the morphological...

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Detail of lines and design of painting. Figures of people at bottom of painting

Elizabeth v/o: ...phase, where, where all, all life and forms were becoming integrated...

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Detail of painting showing human figures and designs. Move right then left over painting

Elizabeth v/o: ...both animal and vegetable and mineral were integrating. And it was that point...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ... it was at that point, when my daughter was down from Broome, and I said "Well, I just show you some of these morphological works." And I had a lot of them. They were down in the rear studio. And she sort of - when she saw them, she sort of started to get cross with me. And she said "Well, what are you doing these mad works for? What are you doing this mad work? You say you're not going to exhibit it, you can't exhibit it. No one will ever look at it. It's going to be - it's just - you're just wasting your time and your materials. Why can't you do some - at least do some simple graphic work that could go through my little gallery," you see. And she got really sort of angry. And I thought, that's funny. And then she looked, looked at them again, and she said "But, they're sort of Aboriginal, Mum. They're sort of Aboriginal." And then she sort of drifted on, looking at them as though she was seeing them. She's very sensitive to art, very sensitive to art. Got a good knowledge of it, although she doesn't practice it herself. And she said "Of course, if these were done by an Aboriginal, then they would get somewhere. But," she said "you'd never agree to doing that. You've always played things so dumb and so straight, you'd never sign things under another name."

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Photo Elizabeth and her daughter

Elizabeth v/o: ... I didn't even answer her. And then I can remember, we went for a walk around the river here.

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: And I was just - an extraordinary thing - we stopped under a kurrajong tree with some pink blossoms on it. And I was just looking at the flowers, the way you do look at flowers. And I heard myself saying "You know Mum - you know Perpetua, I'm not totally opposed to signing those morphological works under a nom de plume." And it was as though from that moment, Eddie Burrup appeared. Eddie Burrup appeared, with his name, his - the way he looked, the age and everything, and then that was, that was the beginning of Eddie Burrup, which was now over four years ago.

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Looking down at newspaper article with title, The Incarnations of Eddie Burrup. Move down to picture of Elizabeth standing in front of large painting

Robin v/o: And when you decided to tell the world that you were Eddie Burrup, did you expect a big reaction?

Elizabeth v/o: Not to that...

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: ...extent. Not to the extent of the reaction that happened when the urban Aboriginals in Sydney were - raised an objection to it.

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Looking down at newspaper headline reading, "Painting hoax has art world divided."

Elizabeth v/o: I had the press of the world coming to my door.

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Looking down at newspaper headline reading, "Nom de brush got quite out of hand."

Elizabeth v/o: They said "Oh, you've got to talk. You've got to talk. You've got to give your side of the story."

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: I said "I don't know what my side of the story is. I'm just not going to talk." And I didn't talk for four months, you see.

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Paint and paint brushes on table top

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Counter top covered with objects and flowers. Window in b/g. Large painting seen through window

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Looking down at hand picking up sketch from table

FX: Rustling paper

Robin v/o: People have felt that because your knowledge of all of this has been passed...

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Elizabeth working in her studio

Robin v/o: ...to you culturally and that you don't actually have as it were, Aboriginal ...

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Elizabeth

Robin o/s: ... genes that you have no right to be speaking about this or to be representing these works through Eddie. What's your answer to that?

Elizabeth sync: Well, that, that, are you referring somewhat there to the idea of cultural appropriation? All I can say to that is that you can't appropriate something that was given freely to you as a gift, both with my inner perceptions and my direct contact with the original people of Australia. It's been, it's been a gift that I hold, although I mightn't have a very black face you see. So to a certain extent it gets into the argument of, of what is Aboriginal? Because of course some of the people challenging what I've done, with respect, I say, they are very little Aboriginal and they have not had the privilege of the contacts that I've had with the ancient world.

Robin o/s: Do you feel that Eddie Burrup to some extent came into being because you needed to be able to express what you were carrying from those days?

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Continuation of previous shot

Elizabeth sync: Yes, to that degree, that was what liberated me as an artist. I feel liberated, that's the nice part about Eddie Burrup. I'm happy doing Eddie Burrup, I'm thrilled to be doing it. The images come out and I'm getting them out, I'm working in quite a big form and of course the, the big canvases are very demanding too, and the energy is coming from some source, I don't know. But I can't, can't believe that anything that's given me such a wonderful resurgence of energy and enjoyment in the creation of images can't be coming from any, anything other than some benign source.

Robin o/s: Did you mean to deceive with this?

Elizabeth sync: When we get into that you can easily track it down to there is deception there but I didn't mean to, it was woollier than that. I didn't want to deceive, I didn't want to hurt sensitive Aboriginals for heaven sake, you know, I didn't want to do any of those things. I didn't sit down and think out - the word hoax worries me terribly really because it wasn't a hoax it was a device, a device to get myself liberated. And it did liberate me and I would have liked people to have seen it ...

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Looking at twin panels of painting against black background

Elizabeth v/o: ...that way and say, what fascinating work.

Robin v/o: And this ...

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Detail of painting

Robin v/o: ... is some of the best work you've ever done. Why did you give it to Eddie? Why not keep it for Elizabeth?

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: I don't think it would have worked through Elizabeth Durack. I would have been lost. It would have just sat out in the rear studio. It was Eddie Burrup that somehow brought it to life. I can't, I can't, I can't answer it. I simply can't answer it.

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Painting lying against black backdrop

Robin v/o: So he's really much more than a nom de plume I mean he's a whole character. You've written his life story.

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Printed article with title "Eddie Burrup - Profile."

Robin v/o: And it's really very striking you know that you always talk about him in the third person.

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: Well, I've got lovely freedom between the two names haven't I? Perhaps I can write all sorts of pieces for the, for the press ...

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Drawing of a crab with the name Eddie Burrup signed around it. Move right to see the name Elizabeth signed on page with other designs

Elizabeth v/o: ..or journals under the name of Eddie Burrup and they'll say of course, you know that's Elizabeth Durack so perhaps, perhaps I can use him as a cover.

Robin v/o: Do you feel you need a cover?

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Elizabeth

Elizabeth sync: I think I did. I think I got very tired of being Elizabeth Durack that had been stereotyped, stereotyped as a relic of old colonialism. A relic of conservatism, a daughter of a murderer, you know, I'm very tired of that. I'm very tired of that. Yes. And that's, that was there and no doubt that was one of the pressures...

00:25:59
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Yellow, pink and brown painted design

Elizabeth v/o: ...although you can't quite rationalise it but it, it might have been why I liked ...

00:26:24
107

Looking at painting against black background

Elizabeth v/o: ...the idea of working under a nom de plume. So there it is.

00:26:30
108

Elizabeth

Fade to black

Elizabeth sync: So what's the fate of Eddie Burrup, I don't know. Or Elizabeth Durack. Remains to be seen.

Music

00:26:34
109

Fade up on picture of Elizabeth's studio seen against black background. Credits roll from bottom of screen.

Interviewer
ROBIN HUGHES

Director of Photography
ERIKA ADDIS

Sound Recordist
LAURIE CHLANDA

00:26:44
110

Credits roll.

Sound Post Production
MICHAEL GISSING
DIGITAL CITY STUDIOS

Promotions Manager
MICHELLE O'RIORDAN

00:26:55
111

Credits roll.

Production Supervisor
IAN ADKINS

Production Accountant
JANETTE GOULD

Production Co-ordinator
JULIE ADAMS

00:26:59
112

Credit roll continues.

Online Editor
ROEN DAVIS
VISUALEYES

Archival Sources

Elizabeth Durack
ABC TV
Filmworld

00:27:04
113

Credits continue.

Edited and Researched by
LINDA KRUGER

Produced and Directed by
ROBIN HUGHES and
LINDA KRUGER

00:27:10
114

Credits continue.

Executive Producers
SHARON CONNOLLY and
MEGAN McMURCHY

Made in association with SBS TV

Fade to black

00:27:14
115

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A National Interest Program Film Australia Ltd
© MCMXCVII

00:27:20
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